OK, so that’s the diagnostic side of a control system. The other side is the actual running of the engine. Suck, squeeze, boom, blow. Over and over again. Technology used to constantly narrow the distance between perfect air/fuel ratio (stoichiometry- 14.7 to 1 with petroleum based fuels) and the wild west of constantly changing cylinder pressures, temperatures, and volumes. Get that wrong and you get imperfect combustion and pollutants like NOx, CO, unburned hydrocarbons, and particulate matter (rolling coal). EPA’s been regulating those levels since 1972. California’s been doing that since before that. That’s why there are 2 standards for everything. California beat EPA to the punch and continue to be able to do thier own thing.
Note that CO2 is not, and has never been on the list. That’s because CO2 is the goal of perfect combustion. If you do everything right, you get CO2. And water. H2O. period. If you don’t want CO2, don’t burn anything. Ever. Don’t fire your kiln. Don’t roast hot dogs. Don’t barbeque. Just fucking don’t. Let me know how that works out for you.
This is physics. It can’t be changed. Period.
Fuel consumption is by definition CO2 and water production.
And the Feds have been regulating fuel consumption since the mid-70s. It’s called CAFE. But that is not run by EPA. It’s run by a division of DOT, namely NHTSA. A small couple of people within NHTSA. And it’s a vastly different regulatory framework. It’s pretty weak courtesy of the legendary John Dingell of Michigan who simply refused to ever tighten it. Period. I’ll spare you the details unless you force me to explain, but trust me, it’s been the definition of cluster for decades.
Next up- Moving to Virginia Soon, Going to be a Regulatory Tycoon.